"Shuikeng" is about occasionally needing to explain to people what "personal website" is.


I have always felt that many tutorials, although not necessarily incorrect, approach the topic from the wrong perspective, and I may have done the same in my own writing.

The most important question is: How can these tutorials help you?

Index of "Water Hole" Tutorial Series

Domain Registration#

I recommend using .com, but you can choose other options if you prefer. Make sure to check the renewal prices.

Currently, the registration and renewal of .com domains are around 75. "Specific agents may vary." "2022-01-16"

Here are two cheaper suffixes for the first year if you want to experiment:

.xyz ¥10.00 ¥70.00

.top ¥15.00 ¥30.00

Choose a domain name that is short, meaningful, and suits your preferences.

Depending on the domain registrar or domain extension (.cn), real-name registration may be required.

Check if a domain name is registered and view its expiration date and other information.

WHOIS Lookup - China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC): https://whois.aliyun.com/

Generally, domain registrars provide privacy protection and do not display the real registrant's information.

Premium Domains and Domain Transfers#

A domain name can be compared to a phone number. As long as you pay the fees on time, you can continue to use it with any operator/registrar.

Just like phone numbers can be transferred between users or switched to different carriers, domain names can also be transferred.

Similar to having a phone number with a special combination of digits, some domain names can be sold at high prices. There are even dedicated trading platforms (or some domain registrars that provide trading support), and some registrars may register certain domain names and auction them to users.

However, regardless of how attractive your phone number is, people who frequently contact you probably store your number in their contacts and search for it by name. This concept is related to "domain name resolution," but before that, we need to understand "web hosting."

The following additional readings provide more information, but you can skip them if you prefer.

Additional Readings on Domain Names#

Domain name registration follows the principle of "first come, first served," and the governing organization does not conduct substantive reviews of whether the domain name applied for violates the rights of third parties. Each domain name registration is unique and cannot be duplicated. Therefore, domain names are a relatively limited resource on the Internet, and their value will gradually be recognized as the number of registered companies increases.


The governing organization may delegate the task to one or more commercial companies. For example, Verisign is responsible for managing the .com, .net, .name, and .gov top-level domains. Other domain registrars obtain domain names from Verisign. The China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) authorizes multiple "registration service agencies" to register .cn domain names. The most well-known ones are Xinnet and Alibaba Cloud, but these are the only ones I know of. They provide both direct registration and wholesale services.

Root Domain Knowledge - Ruanyifeng's Blog


Click to Expand
CN Domain Service Partners - China Internet Network Information Center


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Domain Name Registration Authority - Baidu Baike


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Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers - Baidu Baike

Also known as: ICANN


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Domain Registrar - Baidu Baike


Web Hosting#

I personally refer to the "operating environment" of a website as "web hosting." It can generally be divided into three types: "dedicated servers," "VPS," and "shared hosting." The ones with "cloud" in their names are essentially variations of these three types.

Recommended: Water Hole: How to Answer the Question "How to Back Up a Website"

In fact, you can install the corresponding "operating environment" on your computer to host a website, and some routers also support this. "You can plug in a USB drive on a router to store the files mentioned below."

After installing the "operating environment" on your computer, you can place an image in a given or custom "folder" and view this image in a web browser on another computer or mobile device on the same network by entering a specific URL.

The URL may look like this: http://192.168.0.xxx/pic.jpg

By placing a set of organized files in this "folder," you can create a website. This "folder" is commonly referred to as the "web directory."

However, hosting a website on a home computer or router may have various limitations. For example, the ability to stay powered on continuously, the performance and speed of the device itself, bandwidth and latency, and especially the lack of a public IP address, or having a dynamic one, as well as policy issues.

Therefore, there are "IDC service providers" that offer "web hosting" for rent. Although some of them are more like "resellers."

For beginners, I personally think that a "shared hosting" plan with an annual fee of less than 100 RMB is sufficient. "AD: [ShortSth: Lao Xue Hosting][/ShortSth]"

A step up would be a "VPS" plan with an annual fee of 200 RMB. "AD: [ShortSth: DesiVPS, Host Cloud][/ShortSth]"

Regardless of the specifications of the "web hosting," there should be at least one "public IP" available for external access. This is inconvenient for both site management and user access, so it is usually bound to a domain name for use.

The process of associating a "domain name" with an "IP address" is called "domain name resolution."

Accepting access to a "web hosting" using a specific domain name is called "domain binding." "A single IP address may point to a server with multiple websites, and domain names are used to differentiate them."

If the "web hosting" is located in mainland China, you need to apply for an ICP (Internet Content Provider) filing and obtain approval before "domain binding" is allowed.

Even for non-mainland hosting, the hosting provider or reseller may have content restrictions based on their own "Terms of Service" (TOS).

→ "Independent websites" may not have a "pre-approval process for content" for authorized administrators/users, but it does not mean that "there is absolutely no review." ←

Domain Name Resolution#

After successfully registering a domain name, you can manage it, mainly through the following two options:

"Modify Domain Name DNS Servers" - By default, the servers provided by the registrar are used, but you can switch to better options like DNSPod.

"Set up Domain Name Resolution" - If you haven't modified the DNS servers, you can directly use the panel provided by the registrar to configure it.

...I can't write anymore...

DNS Check | DNS Lookup - Webmaster Tools: http://tool.chinaz.com/dns/


Download FileZilla Client for Windows (64bit x86):


This is a free software. The installation process is in English, but it has a Chinese interface after installation.

When you open the software, you will usually see a toolbar with a "Quickconnect" option. Enter the following information in the corresponding text boxes and click "Connect":

  1. Host IP or domain name
  2. FTP account
  3. FTP password
  4. Port number (usually 21, you can leave it blank)

For shared hosting, you can usually find the first three items in the hosting provider's website, under "Product Management." You may need to click again to access the actual "Hosting Control Panel."

After clicking "Quickconnect," you may see a prompt asking if you trust the connection. "Check 'Always trust this certificate in future sessions' and click 'OK'."

You can also save the FTP connection information in the "Site Manager" in advance.

In addition to the basic information mentioned above, you can also configure options such as encryption, transfer mode, and character encoding. "You don't need to change these unless required."

For remote sites, the "FTP root directory" after connecting may not be the "web directory." The actual "web directory" may be a path like /public_html or /wwwroot.

There may be default files, including index.html, in the actual "web directory." You can delete them if they exist. "The specific files that can be deleted depend on the situation, although theoretically they can all be deleted."

Finally, upload the files or pages of your website to the "web directory" path. "You may also need to directly connect to FTP to modify or add/delete files, although modern 'website programs' try to minimize the need for this."


Your data, files, and programs are stored and run on the rented "web hosting." They are at risk of being lost or damaged due to external factors or your own operations. Therefore, backups are crucial.

In addition, one major characteristic of a "personal website" or "independent website" is the high degree of freedom it offers to us as both users and administrators. However, this also means that many issues can be caused by our own actions. ← "Of course, it could also be due to the poor quality of the program, plugins, or themes used."

Water Hole: How to Answer the Question "How to Back Up a Website" "Recommended for beginners"

【Memo】Linux Scheduled Backup Tutorial "Advanced"


In simple terms, http:// + ssl = https://. Enabling SSL theoretically improves security and is said to be beneficial for SEO.

Most hosting providers offer methods to enable SSL. Some may provide free SSL certificates, while others require you to apply or purchase them.

Important: After enabling SSL, it is recommended to set up a 301 redirect from http:// to https://.

Here are a few tutorials that may not be suitable for beginners:

【Note】LNMP SSL Certificate Deployment/Renewal

【Memo】LNMPA Pseudo-Static/301 Related

Pseudo-Static and 301 Redirect#

Standard "web hosting" supports both "pseudo-static" and "301 redirect" features.

For a more in-depth explanation, please refer to the recommended and additional readings below.

· Pseudo-Static:

Used to map /?id=1 to /post/1.html or similar URL structures. "However, a 301 redirect is required to redirect from the former to the latter."

I recommend using aliases like 20220208001. "Search 'Automatic Alias' - Z-Blog App Center"

For Z-BlogPHP, I recommend using this plugin: Pseudo-Static Settings Assistant - Z-Blog App Center

· 301 Redirect:

When entering wdssmq.com in the browser's address bar, it will automatically redirect to https://www.wdssmq.com/ and may add the www subdomain.

· Recommended Reading:

Water Hole: A Slightly In-Depth Explanation of Pseudo-Static

· Additional Readings:

Pseudo-Static - WDSSMQ

301 - WDSSMQ

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